文章摘要
张楚廷.认识有多少层次[J].高等教育研究学报,2016,39(3):53-55,83 本文二维码信息
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认识有多少层次
How Many Levels of Cognition Are There
  
DOI:
中文关键词:  认知  知识  层次  哲学  高等教育
Key Words:cognitive  knowledge  level  philosophy  higher education
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作者单位
张楚廷 湖南师范大学教育科学学院 
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中文摘要:
      人的认识是多样的,复杂的。本人把人的认识分为八层:感性、悟性、灵性、知性、理性、哲性、诗性、神性。凝结下来的知识大体分为三层:形而下,指经验形态的知识;形而中,指由经验事实上升为理论知识,即黑格尔所谓的“后天的事实”;形而上,是对理论知识的再理论,即哲学。就高等教育而言,本人认为高等教育事实的出现,以博洛尼亚大学的诞生为标志,高等教育理论的诞生,以纽曼的《大学的理想》为标志;高等教育哲学的出现,以雅斯贝尔斯的《大学之理念》为标志。人类总有让自己的思维不断向上的诉求,每个领域都有形而上,都有哲学,每个人在自己的领域都可达到哲学,每个人有必要力求达到相关的哲学,因为哲学给我们智慧,能达到哲学,工作会更自觉,更有效。
Abstract:
      Human beings’ cognition is varied and complicated. The author holds that human beings’ cognition can be divided into eight levels:perception,power of understanding,spiritualism,intellectuality,reason,philosophicality,poeticity,and divinity. Knowledge condensed are divided into three levels:the physical level refers to knowledge in form of experience;the mid-physical level refers to theoretical knowledge upgraded from experienced reality,i.e. Hegel’s “acquired reality”;the metaphysical level refers to further theories based on theoretical knowledge,i.e. philosophy. In terms of higher education,the author holds that the reality of higher education is marked by the birth of Bologna University.The birth of theories on higher education is marked by John Henry Newman’s The Idea of a University. The philosophy of higher education is marked by Karl Jaspers’ Die Idee der Universitat.Human beings appeal to improve their thinking continuously. In every category there should be metaphysics and philosophy. Everyone can reach philosophy in his own field. It is necessary for everyone to reach his related philosophy,for philosophy gives us wisdom. If he reaches philosophy,he will work more consciously and more effectively.
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